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关于人卵子冷冻技术的伦理思考

发表于 2017-01-09
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陆小溦 冯云*上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院生殖医学中心陆小溦

上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院生殖医学中心

[摘要]辅助生育技术日新月异,近年快速发展的人卵子冷冻技术可为手术或放化疗后有可能丧失卵巢功能的妇女、有卵巢功能早衰倾向的妇女、已经促超排卵采集到卵母细胞而男方取精失败的妇女、因各种因素推迟生育年龄的妇女带来了生育力保险,也为卵子捐赠带来了新的希望。但技术的发展同时也带来了伦理的困惑:可否给单身育龄女性提供卵子冻存服务;冷冻卵子的所有权、使用权归属;冷冻卵子者及出生子代的权益等。建议生殖医学机构在提供卵子冷冻技术前,应充分知情同意,告知技术的限制,可能的风险,进行心理评估,并预先确定卵子的归属权。生殖医学机构在提供生育策略与卵子冷冻技术服务过程中,应遵循有利于患者、知情同意、保护后代、社会公益、保密、严防商业化、伦理监督等原则。

[关键词] 人卵子冷冻;配子赠送;体外授精-胚胎移植;医学伦理学

The Ethical Issues of Oocyte Cryopreservation

Xiao-wei LU, Yun FENG*

[ABSTRACT] With the development of assisted reproductive technology, human oocyte cryopreservation brings benefits to the women as follows: who may lose ovary function after surgery or radiotherapy and chemotherapy; who may gain premature ovarian failure; who have collected oocytes after ovarian hyperstimulation but the husband failed to gain sperm; who will delay their reproductive age due to various reasons; and those who are waiting for donate eggs. At the same time, the technology has also brought ethical arguments: Shall we provide egg freezing services to single women? Who have the right of the frozen eggs? Whether the women or their offsprings have the right to know the information about the children or the biological mother? We suggest that the agencies should give all the information about limitations of oocyte cryopreservation, possible risks, and so on, provide psychological assessment and pre-determine the ownership of the eggs before freezing. And the assisted reproductive institutions should follow the principles, as beneficial to patients, informed consent, protecting the offspring, public welfare, confidentiality, without commercialization and ethical oversight, in the process of consultation and oocyte cryopreservation.

[Key words] Human oocyte cryopreservation, gamete donation, in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, medical ethics

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