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美国抗癌一百年大事记(中英文对照版)

郭仁宏 主任医师 江苏省肿瘤医院 肿瘤内科
2009-06-04 2699人已读
郭仁宏 主任医师
江苏省肿瘤医院

美国抗癌一百年大事记(中英文对照版)1900-1980
作者:anti-cancer pioneer
美国抗癌一百年大事记(中英文对照版)1900-1980
1900s
1903 Radium found effective in treatment of tumors (Marie and Pierre Curie isolated radium in 1898).
1903年,发现镭对治疗肿瘤有效.(玛丽和比艾尔 居里于1898年分离出镭)江苏省肿瘤医院肿瘤内科郭仁宏
1907 American Association for Cancer Research founded.
1907年,美国癌症研究协会成立.
1911 Peyton Rous discovers a virus that causes cancer in chickens.
1911年, Peyton Rous发现一种在鸡体内引起癌症的病毒.
1912 Cancer cells are grown in the laboratory, the first long-term "tissue culture."
1912年,癌细胞在实验室中生长,首次长时间的"组织培养".
1913 Publication of first known article on cancer's warning signs in a popular women's magazine (Ladies' Home Journal).
1913年,一家流行的女性杂志(女士家庭杂志)发表第一篇关于癌症警示的文章.
Formation of a nationwide organization dedicated to public education on cancer (the American Society for the Control of Cancer, which later became the American Cancer Society).
致力于全美国范围癌症公众教育的组织成立.(美国癌症控制协会,后成为美国抗癌协会).
1915 Coal tar gives rabbits cancer in experimental proof of carcinogenesis. The theory that chemicals had cancer-causing potential began with observations more than a century earlier of the high rate of cancer among chimney sweeps.
1915年,通过煤焦油引起兔发生癌症发现癌形成的试验证据.对化学物质致癌理论的认识在此前一个世纪发现烟囱清扫工中有高癌发病率现象时就开始了.
1922 Public Health Service opens a Special Cancer Investigations Laboratory at Harvard Medical School.
1922年,公共健康服务部在哈佛大学医学院成立了专业癌症研究实验室.
1928 George Papanicolaou finds vaginal cell smears (the Pap smear) reveal cancer presence.
1928年,George Papanicolaou发现阴道细胞涂片(Pap 涂片)可以找到癌细胞.
1930 The National Institute of Health is established by the Ransdell Act.
1930年,根据Ransdell法案,国立健康研究院成立.
1937 Legislation signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Cancer Institute to support research relating to the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
1937年,Franklin D. Roosevelt 总统签署法案,成立国立癌症研究院以支持癌症形成,诊断和治疗方面的研究.
1940 The first issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute is published.
1940年,国立癌症研究院第一期刊物发表.
1941 Charles Huggins uses synthetic hormone to treat prostate cancer.
1941年,Charles Huggins应用人工合成激素治疗前列腺癌.
1943 The Pap smear is introduced into medical practice.
1943年,Pap涂片法应用于临床实践.
1944 DNA is found by Oswald T. Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty to be the basic cell material.
1944年,Oswald T. Avery, Colin MacLeod, 和Maclyn McCarty发现DNA这一基本细胞成份.
1947 Sidney Farber finds that a folic acid derivative inhibits acute leukemia.
1947年,Sidney Farber发现一种叶酸衍生物可以抑制急性白血病.
This first anti-metabolite leads to a category of drugs that interfere with cell processes because they share structural similarities with a compound required in normal cell activity.
由于与细胞正常代谢需要的化合物结构相似,抗代谢药成为干预细胞周期的一类药物.
1948 George Hitchings synthesizes 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), an antimetabolite, to combat childhood leukemia.
1948年, George Hitchings合成抗代谢药6-巯基嘌呤,用来治疗儿童白血病.
1949 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves nitrogen mustard (methchlorethanine), a drug that interacts with DNA chemically to kill cancer cells (alkylating agent).
1949年,食品药品管理局(FDA)批准氮芥治疗癌症,氮芥通过与DNA发生化学反应来杀死癌细胞.(烃化剂)
1950 Ernst Wynder, Evarts Graham, and Sir Richard Doll confirm cigarette smoking-cancer link.
1950年,Ernst Wynder, Evarts Graham, 和Sir Richard Doll证实吸烟与癌症的关系.
1952 DNA found to be genetic material in some viruses.
1952年,在一些病毒中发现DNA是遗传物质.
1953 James Watson and Francis Crick discover the structure of DNA.
1953年,James Watson和Francis Crick发现DNA结构.
FDA approves methotrexate, an anti-metabolite derived from folic acid, and 6-mercaptopurine as anti-cancer drugs.
FDA批准叶酸衍化的抗代谢药甲氨蝶呤和6-巯基嘌呤作为抗癌药物.
1955 National Chemotherapy Program begins.
1955年,国家化疗项目启动.
Roy Hertz and Min Chiu Li achieve total cure of a human solid tumor, choriocarcinoma.
Roy Hertz 和 Min Chiu Li完全治愈一种人实体瘤-绒毛膜癌.
1957 Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann discover interferon, a virus fighter.
1957年,Alick Isaacs 和 Jean Lindenmann发现抗病毒物质-干扰素.
Charles Heidelberger introduces 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a new type of anti-cancer drug that resulted from rational design.
Charles Heidelberger发明通过合理设计得到的抗癌新药-5-氟脲嘧啶(5-FU).
1959 Cyclophosphamide, an alkylating agent designed to improve the selectivity of cancer drugs, approved by FDA.
1959年,FDA批准烃化剂环磷酰胺为抗癌药,使抗癌药物有了更多的选择.
1960 Chromosome abnormality associated with leukemias.
1960年,发现染色体异常与白血病有关.
1961 Marshal Nirenberg and others prove triplet code governs DNA action.
1961年,Marshal Nirenberg等证明DNA三联密码子.
FDA approves vinblastine, a drug that binds to tubulin, a protein in the fiber-like structures called microtubules that play a key role in the life cycle of cells. The drug is derived from the ornamental shrub, Vinca rosea.
FDA批准联结微管蛋白的药物长春花碱.微管蛋白是纤维状微管中的一种蛋白,微管在细胞周期中起重要作用.该药是从竹桃科植物长春花中提取的生物碱.
1962 The Royal College of Physicians issues report on smoking and health.
1962年,内科医师皇家学校发布吸烟与健康报告.
FDA approves 5-FU as an anti-cancer drug.
FDA批准5-FU作为抗癌药.
1963 FDA approves vincristine, a sister drug to vinblastine.
1963年,FDA批准长春花碱的姊妹药,长春新碱.
1964 The U.S. Surgeon General issues Report on Smoking and Health.
1964年,美国外科联合会发布吸烟与健康报告.
A virus (the Epstein-Barr virus) is linked to human cancer for the first time.
首次发现一种与癌症有关的病毒(Epstein-Barr病毒).
American Society of Clinical Oncology established.
美国临床肿瘤协会成立.
Melphalan (L-PAM) is approved by FDA for marketing.
FDA批准美法仑(左旋苯丙氨酸氮芥)上市.
1966 NCI standardizes testing of cancer-causing chemicals.
1966年,NCI制定致癌化学物试验标准.
1969 Robert Heubner and George Todaro propose the oncogene hypothesis.
1969年,Robert Heubner 和 George Todaro提出癌基因假说.
1970s
Established that proto-oncogenes play important roles in normal cellular control.
确立原癌基因在正常细胞调控中的重要作用.
Cytochrome P450 enzyme system shown to activate many carcinogens.
细胞色素P450酶系统可以激活多种癌基因.
1970 Howard Temin and David Baltimore discover reverse transcriptase enzyme.
1970年,Howard Temin 和 David Baltimore发现逆转录酶.
Restriction enzymes and reverse transcriptase are keys to gene engineering.
限制性酶和逆转录酶成为基因工程的重要手段.
1971 President Richard M. Nixon converted the Army's former biological warfare facilities at Ft. Detrick, Maryland, to house research activities on the causes, treatment, and prevention of cancer.

1971年,Richard M. Nixon总统授权将位于马里兰州Ft. Detrick的前军队生物战设备转为癌症形成,治疗和预防研究.
Prevalence of adult cigarette smoking 37 percent.
成人吸烟者的患病率达37%.
Cisplatin, a heavy metal compound with unique biologic effects, enters clinical trials.
顺铂这一具有独特生物效应的重金属化合物进入临床试验.
President Nixon signs the National Cancer Act of 1971 on December 23.
Nixon总统于1971年12月23日签署国家癌症法案.
1973 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program established.
1973年,监测,流行病学及预后(SEER)计划启动.
Recombinant DNA techniques developed for cloning genes.
重组DNA技术被应用于基因克隆.
Computed tomography (CT) introduced in the United States.
计算机辅助的断层扫描(CT)被引入美国.
Certification in medical oncology and gynecologic oncology first offered.
首次授予内科肿瘤学和妇科肿瘤学资格.
1974 FDA approves doxorubicin, an anti-tumor antibiotic from Streptomyces bacteria.
1974年, FDA批准一种来源于链球菌的抗肿瘤抗生素-阿霉素.
CANCERLINE, a national database of published cancer research established.
国家癌症研究文献数据库CANCERLINE成立.
Recombinant DNA techniques developed for cloning genes (mid-1970s).
重组DNA技术被应用于克隆基因(70年代中期).
1975 Hybridoma technology developed for production of monoclonal antibodies.
1975年,杂交瘤技术被应用于生产单克隆抗体.
Southern blot technique developed to identify DNA fragments.
DNA印迹杂交被用来发现DNA片段.
Methods developed to sequence DNA fragments.
发明DNA片段测序方法.
emission tomography (PET) developed (mid-1970s).
正电子发射断层成像(PET)发明(70年代中期).
Society for Surgical Oncology and Oncology Nursing Society established.
外科肿瘤学协会和肿瘤护理协会成立.
1976 First of some 50 now known human proto-oncogenes discovered (src).
1976年,首批约50个人原癌基因被发现(src).
Interleukin-2 discovered.
白介素-2被发现.
Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) opened.
癌症信息服务开通(1-800-4-癌症).
1977 First national cancer patient education program (I Can Cope) founded.
1977年,首个国家癌症患者教育项目(I Can Cope)成立.
Limb-sparing surgeries developed for sarcomas of the extremities (late 1970s).
肢体肉瘤保肢手术发明(70年代晚期).
1978 First human testing of a biological therapy (alpha-interferon).
1978年,首次进行人体生物治疗试验(α-干扰素).
Tamoxifen approved by FDA for marketing as a treatment drug.
FDA批准他末昔芬作为治疗药物进入市场.
Metastatic cells shown to arise from pre-existing subpopulations in primary tumors.
发现转移细胞来自于原发肿瘤中既存的细胞亚群.
FDA approves cisplatin, a powerful anti-cancer drug.
FDA批准一种有效的抗癌药物-顺铂.
1979 Most frequently mutated gene in human cancer, p53, discovered.
1979年,发现人癌症中最常见的突变基因-p53.
Modified radical mastectomy replaces radical mastectomy for breast cancer.
乳腺癌改良根治术代替经典根治术.
Statistical methods developed to control simultaneously for several factors in the analysis of studies and to quantify cancer risks (1970s and 1980s).
在对研究的分析和癌风险因素的量化中应用统计学方法同时对比几种因素(70年代到80年代).
Studies in human populations link cancer risk to infectious agents, such as human papillomavirus (cervical cancer) and hepatitis B (liver cancer) (1970s and 1980s).
在人群中研究传染病原与癌风险的关系,如人乳头瘤病毒(宫颈癌)和乙型肝炎病毒(肝癌)(70年代到80年代).
Studies clarify the patterns of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation (1970s and 1980s).
进行关于澄清离子辐射暴露后癌风险形式的研究(70年代到80年代).
Studies link cancer risks to hormonal drugs, such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) taken during pregnancy and hormonal replacement therapy (1970s and 1980s).
进行关于激素药物与癌风险关系的研究,如在妊娠期间服用己烯雌酚(DES)和激素替代治疗(70年代到80年代).
Statistical genetic techniques developed to define modes of inheritance, localize genes, and evaluate gene-environment interactions in cancer risk (1970s through 1990s).
统计基因技术被用来确定癌风险中的遗传形式,基因定位和评估基因-环境的相互作用(70年代到90年代).
Precursors to cancer, such as "dysplastic nevi" as precursors to melanoma, linked to several forms of cancer (late 1970s and early 1980s).
发现癌前病变与一些癌症有关,如结构不良痣与黑色素瘤(70年代晚期和80年代早期).

美国抗癌一百年大事记(中英文对照版)1980-1990
1980s
First highly effective anti-nausea drugs developed to alleviate side effects of chemotherapy.
发明首个可以减轻化疗副作用的高效抗恶心药物.
Continuous pain medication infusion pumps developed.
发明持续止痛药物泵.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy developed to help find and remove precancerous growths.
发明可弯曲乙状结肠镜和结肠镜以发现和切除癌前增生病变.
Biochemical and genetic assays integrated into epidemiologic studies (molecular epidemiology).
生化和基因检测被联合应用于流行病研究中(分子流行病学).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) introduced (early 1980s).
磁共振成像(MRI)发明(80年代早期).
1981 First human viral vaccine that can prevent cancer (hepatitis B virus vaccine for liver cancer) introduced.
1981年,发明首个预防癌症的人病毒疫苗(乙型肝炎病毒疫苗预防肝癌).
1982 First major DNA sequence databases established in the United States (GenBank) and Germany.
1982年,主要DNA序列数据库在美国(GenBank)和德国首次建立.
1983 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique used in cancer research.
1983年,限制片段长度多态(RFLP)技术在癌症研究中应用.
NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ) database goes online.
NCI内科医师数据查询(PDQ)数据库联网.
1984 Dietary guidelines to reduce cancer developed.
1984年,建立降低癌症的饮食指南.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice developed (mid-1980s).
发明严重联合免疫缺陷(SCID)大鼠(80年代中期).
Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) developed (mid-1980s).
发明聚合酶链式反应技术(PCR)(80年代中期).
1985 Lumpectomy plus radiation found equivalent to mastectomy for breast cancer.
1985年,发现肿块切除加放疗与乳腺切除在乳腺癌治疗中的效果相同.
1986 First of some 20 now-known tumor suppressor genes cloned (Rb).
1986年,首批约20个已知的抑癌基因被克隆(Rb).
Nerve-sparing prostatectomy, designed to preserve potency and urinary continence, introduced.
发明旨在保留性功能和预防尿失禁的神经保留前列腺切除术.
1988 Adjuvant chemotherapy proven to increase disease-free survival in early breast cancer.
1988年,证实应用辅助化疗治疗早期乳腺癌可以提高无病生存.
The Bethesda System Conference developed system for standardized reporting of Pap smear results.
Bethesda系统会议建立报告Pap涂片结果的标准系统.
1989 Adjuvant chemotherapy proven to increase survival in colon cancer.
1989年,证实辅助化疗可以提高结肠癌的生存.
Human Gene Mapping database established.
人类基因图谱数据库建立.
Carboplatin, a drug derived from cisplatin, is approved by FDA.
FDA批准顺铂的衍生物-卡铂.
Certification in radiation oncology first offered.
首次授予放射肿瘤学资格.
1990s
Transition from film-based radiology to digital computer-assisted medical imaging begun.
开始从图片为基础的放射学向数字计算机辅助医学成像转变.
Multistep nature of carcinogenesis proven.
证明癌形成是多阶段的特点.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique developed.
发明原位免疫荧光杂交(FISH)技术.
Breast cancer death rates begin to decline.
乳腺癌死亡率开始下降.
Several common genetic variants linked to the risk of lung and other cancers.
发现与肺癌和其他癌症相关的常见基因变异.

1980s
First highly effective anti-nausea drugs developed to alleviate side effects of chemotherapy.
发明首个可以减轻化疗副作用的高效抗恶心药物.
Continuous pain medication infusion pumps developed.
发明持续止痛药物泵.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy developed to help find and remove precancerous growths.
发明可弯曲乙状结肠镜和结肠镜以发现和切除癌前增生病变.
Biochemical and genetic assays integrated into epidemiologic studies (molecular epidemiology).
生化和基因检测被联合应用于流行病研究中(分子流行病学).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) introduced (early 1980s).
磁共振成像(MRI)发明(80年代早期).
1981 First human viral vaccine that can prevent cancer (hepatitis B virus vaccine for liver cancer) introduced.
1981年,发明首个预防癌症的人病毒疫苗(乙型肝炎病毒疫苗预防肝癌).
1982 First major DNA sequence databases established in the United States (GenBank) and Germany.
1982年,主要DNA序列数据库在美国(GenBank)和德国首次建立.
1983 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique used in cancer research.
183年,限制片段长度多态(RFLP)技术在癌症研究中应用.
NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ) database goes online.
NCI内科医师数据查询(PDQ)数据库联网.
1984 Dietary guidelines to reduce cancer developed.
1984年,建立降低癌症的饮食指南.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice developed (mid-1980s).
发明严重联合免疫缺陷(SCID)大鼠(80年代中期).
Polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) developed (mid-1980s).
发明聚合酶链式反应技术(PCR)(80年代中期).
1985 Lumpectomy plus radiation found equivalent to mastectomy for breast cancer.
1985年,发现肿块切除加放疗与乳腺切除在乳腺癌治疗中的效果相同.
1986 First of some 20 now-known tumor suppressor genes cloned (Rb).
1986年,首批约20个已知的抑癌基因被克隆(Rb).
Nerve-sparing prostatectomy, designed to preserve potency and urinary continence, introduced.
发明旨在保留性功能和预防尿失禁的神经保留前列腺切除术.
1988 Adjuvant chemotherapy proven to increase disease-free survival in early breast cancer.
1988年,证实应用辅助化疗治疗早期乳腺癌可以提高无病生存.
The Bethesda System Conference developed system for standardized reporting of Pap smear results.
Bethesda系统会议建立报告Pap涂片结果的标准系统.
1989 Adjuvant chemotherapy proven to increase survival in colon cancer.
1989年,证实辅助化疗可以提高结肠癌的生存.
Human Gene Mapping database established.
人类基因图谱数据库建立.
Carboplatin, a drug derived from cisplatin, is approved by FDA.
FDA批准顺铂的衍生物-卡铂.
Certification in radiation oncology first offered.
首次授予放射肿瘤学资格.
1990s
Transition from film-based radiology to digital computer-assisted medical imaging begun.
开始从图片为基础的放射学向数字计算机辅助医学成像转变.
Multistep nature of carcinogenesis proven.
证明癌形成是多阶段的特点.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique developed.
发明原位免疫荧光杂交(FISH)技术.
Breast cancer death rates begin to decline.
乳腺癌死亡率开始下降.
Several common genetic variants linked to the risk of lung and other cancers.
发现与肺癌和其他癌症相关的常见基因变异.

美国抗癌一百年大事记(中英文对照版)1990-2000
1990 First chemoprevention trial to show efficacy - vitamin A analogue against mouth and throat tumors.
1990年,首个化学预防试验显示效果-维生素A类似物预防口腔和喉肿瘤.
1991 First human gene therapy for cancer (melanoma) attempted.
1991年,尝试首次人类癌症基因治疗(黑色素瘤).
American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST), largest tobacco prevention and control project in the United States, launched.
美国最大的烟草预防和控制计划-美国禁烟防癌干预研究(ASSIST)启动.
Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy found to improve survival in rectal cancer.
发现辅助放化疗可以改善结肠癌预后.
Two colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF and GM-CSF) approved to fight the neutropenia of cancer treatment.
批准两种集落刺激因子(G-CSF 和 GM-CSF)控制癌治疗相关的中性粒细胞减少.
1992 Mammography Quality Standards Act passed.
1992年,乳腺X线摄影质量标准法案通过.
Paclitaxel (Taxol) approved by FDA. Found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia, the drug acts to stabilize fiber-like structures called microtubules that play a key role in the life cycle of cells.
FDA批准紫杉醇(泰素).紫杉醇来自于太平洋红豆杉树-短叶红豆杉的树皮,可以稳定称为微管的纤维状结构,该结构在细胞周期中起重要作用.
Breast Cancer Prevention Trial begins, testing tamoxifen, a cancer treatment drug, as a preventive agent in women at increased risk of the disease.
乳腺癌预防试验开始,证实治疗药物他莫昔芬在高风险女性人群中的预防作用.
1993 First of the hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer genes cloned (hMSH2).
Prevalence of adult cigarette smoking drops to 24 percent.
1993年,首次克隆遗传性非息肉病结肠癌(hMSH2).
成人吸烟患病率下降至24%.
NCI-sponsored studies in China show importance of nutrition in preventing cancer.
NCI在中国申办的研究证明营养在癌症预防中的重要性.
Annual fecal occult blood test proven to reduce colorectal cancer deaths by one-third.
证实每年粪隐血检查可以降低1/3结直肠癌的死亡率.
Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial begins, testing finasteride, a drug used to reduce symptoms of prostate enlargement.
前列腺癌预防试验开始,验证减轻前列腺肥大症状的药物非那雄胺的预防作用.
Largest early detection study, the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, begins recruiting 148,000 volunteers.
最大的早期发现研究-前列腺,肺,结直肠和卵巢癌筛查试验开始入组148,000名志愿者.
1994 BRCA1, the first inherited breast cancer gene, cloned.
Study of beta carotene supplements in smokers shows no benefit and possible increased risk of lung cancer.
1994年,克隆第一个乳腺癌遗传基因- BRCA1.
吸烟者补充β胡罗卜素的研究证实无益处并可能增加肺癌的风险.
1995 BRCA2 cloned.
1995年,克隆 BRCA2.
Tretinoin, the first successful differentiating agent, approved by FDA for use in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
FDA批准首个有效的促分化药物-维A酸治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病.
Porfimer sodium, a drug that sensitizes tumors to light, is approved by FDA, permitting photodynamic therapy in the United States.
FDA批准肿瘤光敏感剂卟吩姆钠,允许在美国进行光动力治疗.
1996 Topotecan, the first of a class of drugs that interferes with the enzyme topoisomerase I, is approved. Topoisomerases uncoil DNA before cell division, and altering the work of the enzyme leads to tumor cell death. Topotecan is derived from the bark of a Chinese tree known as Camptotheca acuminata.
1996年,批准首个干预拓普异构酶药物-拓扑替康.拓普异构酶在细胞分裂前使DNA解旋并改变酶功能导致肿瘤细胞死亡.拓扑替康来自于中国喜树的树皮.
Two major studies of beta carotene supplements show no cancer prevention benefit.
两个大型β胡罗卜素补充研究表明无癌症预防益处.
1997 Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, a multi-year project to assemble the first index of genes involved in cancer, launched.
1997年,首个整合与癌症相关基因指标的多年计划-癌症基因组剖析计划启动.
First biotechnology product approved by FDA to treat patients with cancer - a monoclonal antibody called rituximab, used to treat one type of lymphoma.
FDA批准首个治疗癌症的生物技术药物-一种称为利妥昔的单克隆抗体治疗一种淋巴瘤.
1998 Women at increased risk of developing breast cancer shown to reduce the chance of developing breast cancer by half by taking tamoxifen in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.
1998年,他莫昔芬乳腺癌预防试验表明高风险患者的发病机会降低一半.
Trastuzumab (Herceptin(), a monoclonal antibody that targets cancer cells that produce a protein called HER2, approved by FDA. HER2 occurs in high numbers in about 25 percent to 30 percent of women with metastatic breast cancer.
FDA批准曲妥珠单抗(赫赛汀,定位于产生HER2蛋白癌细胞的单克隆抗体).在转移性乳腺癌患者中有约25%到30%出现HER2.
2000s
2000 A team, including NCI scientists and grantees, used microarray technology to show that the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, is actually two distinct diseases, thus explaining why 40 percent of patients with NHL can be cured through chemotherapy while others succumb to the disease. This is the first demonstration of a technology that promises to revolutionize cancer diagnosis as well as many other areas of research.
2000年,一个包括NCI科学家和受资助研究者在内的小组利用微阵列技术发现,最常见的非何杰金淋巴瘤(NHL)-弥漫型大B细胞淋巴瘤实际上是两种不同的疾病.这一结果解释了为什么只有40%的NHL患者可以通过化疗治愈.这是一种技术首次对癌症诊断及其他研究领域产生革命性影响.
2001 Under a cooperative research agreement with the drug company Novartis, NCI scientists found that a new drug known as Gleevec was effective against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in patients for whom standard treatments had failed. (CML is a disease in which too many white blood cells are made in the bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside the large bones in the body.) NCI funded the lion's share of the basic research that led to the discovery and development by Novartis of Gleevec, the first anti-cancer drug specifically developed to target the molecular problem that causes a particular type of cancer.
2001年,在一个与诺华公司的合作研究中,NCI科学家们发现一种有效治疗标准治疗失败的慢性粒细胞白血病(CML)药物-伊马替尼.(CML是一种骨髓中产生过多白细胞的疾病,骨髓是体内大块骨骼内的海绵状组织).NCI资助的基础研究发现并开发了诺华的伊马替尼,该药物是第一个特异定位于分子改变的抗癌药物.
2002 Scientists from NCI and FDA reported that patterns of proteins found in patients' serum may reflect the presence of ovarian cancer, even at early stages. Currently, more than 80 percent of ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at a late clinical stage and have a 20 percent or less chance of survival at five years. This new diagnostic concept is potentially applicable to the diagnosis of other diseases.
2002年,NCI和FDA的科学家报告,患者血清中蛋白形态可以提示即使在早期阶段的卵巢癌.目前,超过80%的卵巢癌患者确诊时已经为临床晚期,5年生存率只有20%或更低.这一新的诊断理念有可能应用于其他疾病的诊断中.


倪博士作的评论一并转过来。
(参考)100 Years of Advances Against Cancer
http://cra.nci.nih.gov/2_accomplishments/1900s-1930s.htm
肿瘤研究起始于100多年前,
1910年以前基本是朴素肿瘤理论;
1910年-1980年之前主要是实验肿瘤学,其中化学诱癌实验独领风骚,标志是著名的两阶段癌变学说;
1980-1990年是癌基因和抑癌基因时代,病毒与肿瘤之间关系的研究导致癌基因的发现,遗传学和DNA病毒等研究导致抑癌基因发现;
1990-1995年是信号转导时代,大量癌基因和抑癌基因的发现需要理论解释它们与肿瘤的关系,导致信号转导理论盛行;
1995-2000年是细胞周期时代,信号转导理论必然涉及处于中心位置的细胞周期调节问题;
2000-现在,肿瘤干细胞时代,干细胞的研究促使肿瘤干细胞的研究进入新的历史时期。

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郭仁宏 主任医师

江苏省肿瘤医院 肿瘤内科

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